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高速加工中心的数控系统概述

日期:2017-08-10 作者: 人气:1899

高速(su)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心是(shi)一种可(ke)以(yi)对加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)进行(xing)高速(su)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)一种工(gong)(gong)具能(neng)够如此快(kuai)速(su)的(de)(de)(de)进行(xing)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)除了(le)因为(wei)高速(su)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心的(de)(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)精(jing)密(mi)度(du)(du)和(he)成熟(shu)的(de)(de)(de)技术之外(wai)更(geng)多(duo)的(de)(de)(de)还是(shi)得利与其优(you)秀的(de)(de)(de)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)系统,在当前的(de)(de)(de)机床加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)行(xing)业中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)为(wei)视(shi)线高速(su)稳定的(de)(de)(de)高精(jing)度(du)(du)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)运行(xing)快(kuai)速(su)且功能(neng)强(qiang)大(da)的(de)(de)(de)计算机数(shu)(shu)控(kong)系统是(shi)必(bi)不可(ke)少,需要注意(yi)的(de)(de)(de)是(shi)高速(su)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心的(de)(de)(de)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)系统必(bi)须能(neng)够足够快(kuai)地处理数(shu)(shu)控(kong)程序(xu)代码段(duan)以(yi)保持程序(xu)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)规定的(de)(de)(de)进给速(su)度(du)(du)。

 

高(gao)(gao)速加(jia)工中心在(zai)实际运行中是(shi)计(ji)算机数(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)用于(yu)测量一(yi)次工作台(tai)的(de)实际位置并(bing)发出(chu)一(yi)次进给(ji)命令(ling)所用的(de)时间(jian),对(dui)于(yu)伺服周期和代(dai)码(ma)段处(chu)理(li)时间(jian)是(shi)计(ji)算机数(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)的(de)两个(ge)重(zhong)要(yao)参数(shu)(shu)(shu)及(ji)其概念。计(ji)算机数(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)处(chu)理(li)并(bing)完成一(yi)条加(jia)工指令(ling)代(dai)码(ma)段规定(ding)的(de)位移所花费的(de)时间(jian)。 计(ji)算机数(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)的(de)这(zhei)两个(ge)参数(shu)(shu)(shu)对(dui)于(yu)高(gao)(gao)速加(jia)工中心来说非常重(zhong)要(yao),因为他(ta)们将(jiang)决定(ding)机床的(de)加(jia)工速度(du)(du)和加(jia)工精(jing)度(du)(du)。在(zai)这(zhei)里,精(jing)度(du)(du)意味着在(zai)采用线性插补时,用直(zhi)线段来逼(bi)近零件轮廊所允许的(de)最(zui)大(da)误差。

 

我们可(ke)以(yi)看到在高速(su)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)计(ji)算(suan)(suan)机(ji)(ji)数(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)必须保(bao)证(zheng)形成(cheng)(cheng)精确(que)的(de)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)轨迹(ji),另(ling)外,在用直线段来(lai)逼近零件轮廊时,为了保(bao)证(zheng)精度,直线段势必很短,从而使得零件程序变得很长(zhang)。基于(yu)此(ci),计(ji)算(suan)(suan)机(ji)(ji)数(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)需要一(yi)个(ge)32位的(de)微处(chu)(chu)理器(qi),有(you)时甚至(zhi)需要多(duo)个(ge)微处(chu)(chu)理器(qi),以(yi)完成(cheng)(cheng)高速(su)插补、高速(su)段处(chu)(chu)理和良好的(de)待(dai)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)轨迹(ji)监(jian)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(Look Ahead)功能。为了能预先知道刀具(ju)路径(jing)(jing)以(yi)避免在拐角 处(chu)(chu)出现(xian)事(shi)故,计(ji)算(suan)(suan)机(ji)(ji)数(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)最好是(shi)(shi)具(ju)有(you)较(jiao)多(duo)段加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong) NC代码(ma)轨迹(ji)监(jian)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)的(de)能力,这(zhei)与司机(ji)(ji)必须有(you)良好的(de)视(shi)野(ye) 范围(wei)才能高速(su)驾驶一(yi)辆(liang)汽车有(you)些类似。 目前(qian)(qian)所(suo)有(you)较(jiao)高水(shui)平(ping)的(de)计(ji)算(suan)(suan)机(ji)(ji)数(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)都(dou)具(ju)有(you)待(dai)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)轨迹(ji)监(jian)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)能力。所(suo)谓待(dai)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)轨迹(ji)监(jian)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong),就是(shi)(shi)计(ji)算(suan)(suan)机(ji)(ji)数(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)在控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)制加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)的(de)同时扫(sao)描待(dai)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)的(de)数(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)代码(ma),看刀具(ju)路径(jing)(jing)是(shi)(shi)否(fou)有(you)方(fang)向(xiang)上(shang)的(de)突然改(gai)(gai)变,如(ru)果计(ji)算(suan)(suan)机(ji)(ji)数(shu)(shu)(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)发现(xian)前(qian)(qian)面必须改(gai)(gai)变进给方(fang)向(xiang)时,自动执(zhi)行加(jia)(jia)(jia)减速(su)程序,以(yi)避免高速(su)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心偏离程序中(zhong)(zhong)规(gui)定的(de)切(qie)削(xue)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)路径(jing)(jing)。


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